Jhamat, M. (2023). The relationship between expressed anger & spirituality among experienced meditators: A mixed methods study [Unpublished Master’s thesis]. Alef Trust & Liverpool John Moores University.

Previous research investigating the relationship between anger expression and spirituality has yielded conflicting results. It has focussed on exploring the quantitative relationship within limited populations (students), using measures too narrow to account for the multidimensionality of anger expression. This study aims to enhance understanding through a mixed methods approach using multi-dimensional measures. This explanatory sequential study aimed to explore the relationship between anger expression and spirituality by obtaining quantitative results from surveying 50 experienced meditators and following up with five purposely selected meditators to explore those findings further. The quantitative findings suggest that spirituality and mindfulness (observing and non-reacting facets) are associated with reduced reactivity and aggressive expression and increased calm, assertive verbal expression. Surprisingly, existential spirituality was associated with less aggressive, not more assertive, anger expression. In the follow-up qualitative phase, Transcendental Phenomenological analysis revealed four major themes: 1) enacting spiritual purpose; 2) emotional healing; 3) personal and spiritual evolution; and 4) becoming conscious. The results of each phase are discussed in reference to previous research. Due to only females being interviewed in the second phase, caution in generalising the findings across genders should be exercised.

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